HSC Modifier Rules (Video)

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This is about HSC Modifier Rules (Video). Practice these rules again and again. And you will be successful.

 

Modifier

o   Modifier: শাব্দিক অর্থে Modifier বলতে গুন প্রকাশকারী বা বিশেষণবাচক শব্দ বা শব্দগুচ্ছকে বুঝায়| কিন্তু English Grammar GModifier  কোনো কিছু সম্পর্কে‡ অতিরিক্ত তথ্য প্রদানকারী শব্দ হিসেবে পরিচিত।Modifier- Noun এর পাশাপাশি অন্যান্য Word- কেও Modify করে|

Definition: যে word বা phrase- Noun, Adjective, verb এবং Adverb এর পূর্বে অথবা পরে বসে এদেরকে Modify করে অর্থ্যাৎ এদের সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য প্যদান করে, তাকে Modifier বলে|

 

ü  Phrase: (Phrase হচ্ছে group of words (শব্দগুচ্ছ যার কোন finite verb থাকে না| অন্যদিকে, Clause হচ্ছে এমন বাক্যাংশ যার Subject I finite verb রয়েছে|)
The boy pulling rickshaw is very poor.

Andaleeb Rahman Partho is a skilled orator (
বক্তা).
The crow swiftly went to the jar.
We have to work hard to shine in life.

Determiner, Adjective, Adverb এবং Noun, Modifier এর কাজ করে|

Modifier দুই প্রকার : 1. Pre-modifier 2. Post-modifier

 

o   Pre-modifier: Pre অর্থ পূর্বে| অতএব, যে Modifier- Noun বা Noun Phrase, Adjective, verb এবং Adverb এর পূর্বে বসে Modify করে, তাকে Pre-modifier বলেউল্লেখ্য, Pre-modifier- Noun Phrase এর Head word এর পূর্বে এবং Determiner এর পর বসে|

Pakistan army swooped on armless Bangalee in 1971.
The sleeping puppy is so cute.

o  
Post-modifier: Post শব্দের অর্থ পবে| তাই যে Modifier-Noun বা Noun Phrase, Adjective, verb এবং Adverb এর পরে বসে Modify করে,  তাকে Post Modifier বলে|
There is nothing abnormal in report.


Pre-modifiers

সাধারণত Noun, adjective, verb এবং adverb এর পূর্বে Pre-modifiers  ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Structure: Modifiers + noun/adjective/verb/adverb



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Noun Pre-modifiers
যে word – noun এর পূর্বে বসে উক্ত noun সম্পর্কে সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য প্রদান করে তা Noun Pre-modifiers.
1.      Determiners as noun pre-modifiers: বিভিন্ন ধরনের determiners noun এর pre-modifiers হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়| এগুলো নিন্মরূপ:
o   Determiners: যে সকল Word- Noun এর পূর্বে বসে Noun কে নির্দেশ করে, তাদের Determiners রলা হয়|Determiners এর আওতায় পড়ে 
* Article: a, an, the
*Demonstrative: this, that, these, those, which etc.
*Possessive: my, your, our, his, her, their, its, Rahman’s
* Numerals: two, three, four, etc.
* Quantifiers: all, any, both, some, no, every, either, neither, few, little, many, much, another, enough, several etc.
The other name of water is life.
* Ordinals: first, second, third, 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.
I.            Articles as pre-modifier: Article, Nounএর পূর্বে বসলে তা pre-modifier হিসেবে কাজ করে|
Sabbir is (a) —– (use determiner to pre-modify the noun phrase) ideal student. Ans: an (Din. B-2017)
Here (j) ——- (use a determiner) nutritionist can help us. Ans: a (C.B-2017)
(Post modify the verb with an adverb), you can communicate with (e)…… (Use article to pre-modify the noun phrase) rest of the world.(J.B-2016)
 
 

 

II.            Demonstrative as pre-modifier:  Demonstrative Adjective (this, that, these, those) pre-modifier হিসেবে Noun এর পূর্বে ব্যবহৃত হয়ে  Noun এর নির্দিষ্টতা নির্দেশ করে|

To erase (e) —— (use a demonstrator to pre-modify the noun) history is not easy. Ans: this (Ctg.B-2017)
But she found (f)….. (Use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) jug too heavy. Ans: that (R.B-2016)
We can never forget (j)…… (Use a demonstrative to pre-modify the adjective phrase) lovely sea birds. (C.B-2016)


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III.            Possessive as pre-modifier: যেসব শব্দ দ্বারা অধিকার বা মালিকানা প্রকাশ করা হয় তাদের Possessive বলে|এ ক্ষেত্রে Possessive (my, our, your, her, his, its, their, Karim’s) Noun এর পূর্বে বসে Pre-modifier হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
He prepares (b) —– (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) lessons in collaboration with his teachers. Ans: his (Din. B-2017).
Most of the people in (a) ….. (Use possessive to pre-modify the noun) country do not know the importance of English
. (J.B-2016)
 
 

 

 
 
IV.            Quantifier as Pre-modifier: যেসব শব্দ দ্বারা কোনো কিছুর সংখ্যা বা পরিমান নির্দেশ করে তাদেরকে Quantifier বলে| Quantifier: all, any, both, some, no, every, either, neither few, a few, much, many, a many, many a, little, a little, a huge number of, a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a great amount of, no, none, every, each, some, any ইত্যাদি Pre-modifier হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়|

He says prayer (h) —— (use a quantifier to pre-modify the noun) times a day. Ans: five (Din.B-2017)
because you have (j)…. (Pre-modify the noun with a determiner) tail of your own. (Ctg.B-2016)
The (c)….. (Determiner to pre-modify the noun) name of water is life. (Din.B-2016)

  
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2.      Adjective as noun pre-modifiers: বিভিন্ন ধরনের Adjective attributive হিসেবে  pre-modifiers হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়| Adjective এর অবস্থান determiner এবং noun এর মাঝে|
o  
Adjective as Pre-modifier: বাক্যে Adjective- Noun বা Noun phrase- এর পূর্বে বসে ঐ Noun বা Noun phrase সর্ম্পকে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য দেয়। সুতরাং ঐ Noun বা Noun phrase টির Pre-modifier এর কাজ করে|
He husband was a (a) —– (Pre-modify the noun) farmer. Ans: poor (R.B-2017)
Deforestation causes (b) ——(pre-modify the noun) imbalance. Ans: ecological.
English is an international language.
 
 
3.      Present participle ( অর্থ্যাৎ verb এর present from এর সাথে ing) as noun Pre-modifier: আমরা জানি Participles সবসময় Adjective এর কাজ করে| আবার Adjective সবসময় Noun কে Modify করে| তাই Participle যখন Noun এর পূর্বে বসে উক্ত Noun কে Modify করে তখন তা Pre-modifier|
 ——(use a participle to pre-modify the noun) trees in such an indiscriminate rate will be hazardous for our future existence.  Ans: Cutting. (D.B-2017)
The —— (use a participle to pre-modify them noun) temperature will cause greenhouse effect. Ans: increasing. (D.B-2017)
4.      Noun / Noun-adjective as noun pre-modifier: অনেক সময় একটি Noun অন্য একটি Noun এর পূর্বে বসে ঐ  Noun-কে modify করে|এক্ষেত্রে দুটি Noun পাশাপাশি বসে| তখন প্রথম  Noun-টি দ্বিতীয় Noun-এর Adjective. |
The (e) ——(use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) level is rising. Ans: sea. (D. B-2017)
We are responsible for (h) ….. (Noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) pollution. Ans: water (Din. B-2016)
It was a hot (a)… (Use a noun adjective to per-modify the noun) day. (R.B-2016)
It is surely an important element of your (f)…… (Use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) skill. (J.B-2016)
Poor knowledge of English will hamper your (h)…… (Use noun adjective) development.(J.B-2016)
Apartheid  was (c) —— (use noun-adjective to pre-modify the noun) policy of racial segregation. Ans: government
Adjective Pre-modifiers
‡hme word- adjective Gi c~‡e© e‡m D³Adjective m¤ú‡K© AwZwi³ Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡i Zv Adjective Pre-modifiers.
Adverb, intensifiers, downtoners as Adjective Pre-modifiers:
mvaviYZ Adverb, intensifiers, downtoners ‡Kv‡bv  Adjective Gi c~‡e© e‡m Pre-modifiers wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|
1.      Adverb as Pre-modifier of Adjective: Adverb- Adjective Gi c~‡e© e‡m Pre-modifier Gi KvR K‡i|
It is that our tails are (f)….. (Pre-modify the adjective) useless. (Ctg.B-2016)
Terrorism is really unexpected reality of modern world.
Sheikh Mujib was an internationally acclaimed leader.
2.      Intensifier as Pre-modifier of Adjective: ‡h Adverb ‡Kvb Adjective Ges Ab¨ †Kvb Adverb- Av‡M e‡m  Gi Dci †Rvi ‡`q, Zv‡K Intensifier e‡j| G‡ÿ‡Î Intensifier wn‡m‡e Very me‡P‡q e¨en„Z nq| ZvQvov actually, really, certainly, surely, greatly, fully, definitely, absolutely, thoroughly, positively, very, very much, highly, extremely, much, indeed, exactly, quite, utterly, perfectly etc.
A village doctor is a very familiar person in the rural areas of Bangladesh.
In our country, the number of qualified doctors is (i) …… (Use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) few. Ans: very (B.B-2016; J.B-2017)
He is (g) —– (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) devoted to God. Ans: very/ greatly (Din.B-2017)
His songs are (f) —– (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) melodious. Ans: very (Syl.B-2017)
They became (f)…… (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) dear and friendly to us. (C.B-2016)
Verb premodifiers
‡h me word verb Gi c~‡e© e‡m D³ verb m¤ú‡K© AwZwi³ Z_¨ cª`vb K‡i Zv verb pre-modifiers.  
1.     
Adverb as Pre-modifier of Verb: Adverb- verb Gi c~‡e© e‡m Pre-modifier Gi KvR K‡i|
Village doctor is (b) …… (Pre-modify the verb) known as a quack. Ans: also (B.B-2016; J.B-2017)
We may (f) …… (Pre-modify the verb) face premature death by drinking such type of water. Ans: surely (Syl. B-2016)
Students were attentively reading in the library.
Post-modifiers
Noun post-modifiers

‡h word – noun Gi c‡i e‡m D³ noun m¤ú‡K© AwZwi³ Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡i Zv Noun Post-modifiers.
1.      Appositive as noun post-modifier:hLb `ywU Noun cvkvcvwk e‡m GKB e¨w³ ev e¯Íy‡K eySvq ZLb wØZxq Noun wU‡K cÖ_g Noun wUi Appositive ev Case in Appositive e‡j| D‡jøL¨, wØZxq Noun wU cª_g Noun wU m¤ú©‡K AwZwi³ Z_¨ †`q | Ges Zv Post Modifier.
His father, (i) ——- (Post-modify the noun with an appositive) supports him cordially. Ans: a poor farmer (Din.B-2017)
Raja, — (Post- modify the noun with an appositive), is known to his classmate as a good student. Ans: a poor boy (B. B-2017)
Nazrul, (c) —— (use an appositive), won the attention of everyone in his childhood. Ans: a rebel poet. (Syl. B-2017)
You will suffer (i) ….. (Post modify the verb with prepositional phrase/ adverbial) of your life. (Syl.B-2016)
2.      Relative Clause as noun Post-modifier: Relative noun memgq Noun/noun phrase Gi c‡i e‡m, Ges H Noun/noun phrase ‡K Modifier K‡i| ZvB Giv memgq Post-modifier |
Brabantio, a rich, senator of Venice had a daughter named Desdemona (d)….. (Use a relative clause to post modify the noun). Ans: who is very beautiful (Syl.B-2016)
The boy who obtained GPA5 is brilliant.
Verb post-modifier
‡h word –verb Gi c‡i e‡m D³ verb m¤ú‡K© AwZwi³ Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡i Zv verb Post-modifiers.
Infinitive: To+Verb Gi Present Form Ges †Kvb wKQz Ki‡Z ev K‡i, hvB‡Z ev wM‡q, LvB‡Z ev †L‡q, co‡Z ev c‡o, bvP‡Z ev ‡b‡P A_© ‡evSvq|
1.       Infinitive/infinitive phrase as verb Post-modifier: Infinitive Phrase GB hw` †Kvb Verb Gi c‡i e‡m H Verb †K Modify K‡i Z‡e †mB Infinitive Phrase wU Post Modifier |

Some dishonest peoplecut trees in our forest (c) ——(use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb) money. Ans; to earn much. (D. B-2017)
Necessary measures should be taken —— (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). Ans: to stop cutting trees (D. B-2017). He went to London (e)…… (Post modify the verb with an infinitive) school there. (D.B-2016). He also visited the House of Parliament (h)….. (Post modify the verb with an infinitive) Gladstone and John Bright’s debates on Irish rule. (D.B-2016). We decided (i)…… (Use infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb) in the idyllic (kvšÍ I g‡bvig) island for a couple of days. (C.B-2016)
She refused all the young men (j)……. (Use an infinitive to post modify the verb) because she loved Othello. (Syl.B-2016)
2.      Adverb as Post Modifier of Verb: Adverb hLb Verb Gi c‡i e‡m Verb ‡K Modify K‡i, ZLb Adverb wU Post Modifier wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|
He does (c) —— (Post-modify the verb) in every examination as he does not waste time. (Din.B-2017)
 If we destroy trees (h) —— (use an adverbial phrase to post-modify the verb), one day the country will turn into a great desert. Ans: at random. (D.B-2017)

Deforestation means cutting down of trees (a) ——(post-modify the verb). Ans: randomly.
At this, his family thought that they might lose their son (j)…… (Post-modify the verb). (D.B-2016)
I had a peculiar experience (a)…… (Post-modify the verb) while travelling to St. Martin’s Island. (C.B-2016)
She pitied Othello (h)….. (Use an adverb to post modify the verb) for the misfortunes. (Syl.B-2016)
We may (f) …… (Pre-modify the verb) face premature death. (Din.B-2016)
3.      Present participle as Post-modifier of verb:
New areas of the world are (f) ——(use a participle to pre-modify the verb) turned into desert. Ans: being. (D.B-2017)
He treats the patients (e) …… (Use participle to post-modify the verb) small fees.
Ayesha Begum started (i) —— (Post-modify the verb) in the village to feed her old, sick husband and herself. Ans: begging. (R.B-2017)
 Their sons also started (d) —— (use present participle to modify the verb) with their father. Ans: working (R.B-2017)
He wrote letters to Kolkata (i)…… (post modify the verb with a present participle) English society. (D.B-2016)
….. (Use a participle to pre-modify the verb), she saw some pebbles nearby.(R.B-2016)
Adjective pre-modifiers
‡h word –Adjective Gi c‡i e‡m D³ adjective m¤ú‡K© AwZwi³ Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡i Zv adjective Post-modifiers.
1.      Adverb as Post Modifier of Adjective: Adverb hLb Adjective Gi c‡i e‡m Adjective ‡K Modify K‡i, ZLb Adverb wU Post Modifier wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|
Soon it was high (j)……. (Post-modify the adjective) for the crow to drink. (R.B-2016)
He told them of caves and of mountains high (f)…. (Use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) to touch the sky. (Syl.B-2016)
2.     
Infinitive as Post Modifier of Adjective:Infinitive PhraseGB hw` †KvbAdjective Gi c‡i e‡m HAdjective †K Modify K‡i Ze †mB Infinitive Phrase wU Adjective Gi Post Modifier |
It is essential (b) —- (Post-modify the adjective with an infinitive) a healthy life. Ans: to lead (C.B-2017)
But it is not easy (i) —– (Post-modify the adjective with an infinitive) a balanced diet. Ans: to select (C.B-2017
)
Najrul was unlucky to meet a man like Ali Akber Khan.
·         Degree as Modifier: Comparative / Superlative Degree, Noun Gi c~‡e© e‡m H Noun ‡K Modify K‡i|
They buy some special presents for their dearest mother. (Superlative)
The menu is less varied, and less expensive. (Comparative)
·         Prepositional Phrase as Modifier: Prepositional phrase  ej‡Z Preposition+ noun A_ev noun phrase ‡evSvq|  Prepositional PhraseI Noun Gi ci e‡m Noun ‡K Modify K‡i Ges Post Modifier wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq|
you will suffer (i) ….. (Post modify the verb with prepositional phrase/ adverbial) of your life. (J.B-2016)
The road
from Chittagong is four-lane.