Wednesday , May 12 2021
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Negative to Affirmative || Assertive to interrogative || Exclamatory to assertive || Transformation of Sentence || HSC Grammar (Video)

 

Negative to Affirmative

১. Negative Sentence কে Affirmative করতে প্রদত্ত Sentence এরHead word পরিবর্তন করে বিপরীত বসাতে হবে।
Negative: He does not leave his friend. (C.B-2013)
Affirmative: He stays with his friend.
Negative: We should not disrupt social order. (Sy. B-2013)
Affirmative: We should maintain social order.

২. Negative Sentence এ who থাকলে Affirmative করার সময় everybody হয় এবং Negative থাকলে  affirmative হয়|
Negative: Who does not like peace? (Sy. B-2013)
Affirmative: Everybody likes peace.

 

৩. Negative Sentence এ Never থাকলে Affirmative করতে Never এর বদলে Always বসাতে হয় এবং Head word এর বিপরীত Word বসাতে হয়।
Negative: They will never be forgotten by their countrymen to the end. (C.B-2016)
Affirmative: They will always be remembered by their countrymen to the end.

দারাজ থেকে শপিং করতে ক্লিক করুন এখানে

 

Assertive to interrogative


Rule 1: অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে  Auxiliary/Be (Am, is, are, was, were)  verb যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় sentence টি যদি affirmative হয় তাহলে – Auxiliary/ be verb + n’t + subject + বাকী +?
Note- assertive এ will, can, shall, am থাকলে Interrogative রুপান্তর করার সময় won’t, can’t, shan’t, amn’t হয়. 

Assertive – He can succeed in life. (D.B-2014)
Interrogative – Can’t he succeed in life?
Assertive – The consumers of mobile phone are increasing day by day. (C.B-2014)
Interrogative – Aren’t the consumers of mobile phone increasing day by day?
Assertive – Moral lesson is essential for this. (B.B-2014)
Interrogative – Isn’t moral lesson is essential for this?
Assertive – They are fond of watching “Twenty-twenty” cricket. (R.B-2013, Ctg. B-2011)
Interrogative – Aren’t they fond of watching “Twenty-twenty” cricket?
Assertive – Communicative competence can be achieved in a short time.( B.B-2012)
Interrogative – Can’t communicative competence be achieved in a short time?


Rule 2: Auxiliary verb যুক্ত negative অর্থবোধক Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় negative উঠে যায়। এবং সাহায্যকারী verb প্রথমে বসে। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে। 
Assertive – He is not in the school.
Interrogative – Is he in the school?
Assertive – I shall not go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Interrogative – Shall I go to Dhaka tomorrow?


Rule 3: Auxiliary verb বিহীনA_¨v©r g~j Verb hy³ Assertive sentence interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় – Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +? 
Assertive – A healthy man succeeds in life. (J.B-2014)
Interrogative – Don’t a healthy man succeed in life?
Assertive – Water vehicles pollute rivers when they dump oil, food waste and human waste into them. (Ctg.B-2013)
Interrogative – Don’t water vehicles pollute when they dump oil, food waste and human waste into them?
Assertive – Her mother often writes to her. (D.B-2012)
Interrogative – Does her mother write often to her?
Assertive – My friend invited me to pay a visit to Cox’s Bazar. (C.B-2012)
Interrogative – Didn’t my friend invite me to pay a visit to Cox’s Bazar?
Assertive – It eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. (Ctg.B-2012)
Interrogative – Doesn’t it eliminate the time spent establishing phone calls?
Assertive – The towers symbolise the loftiness of the spirit of the martyred freedom fighters.( Sy. B-2011)
Interrogative –  Don’t the towers symbolise the loftiness of the spirit of the martyred freedom fighters.
Assertive – Every day many people go to visit it. (Sy. B-2011)
Interrogative – Don’t many people go to visit it everyday?
Assertive – The master enquired of the missing leg. (R.B-2010)
Interrogative – Didn’t the master enquire of the missing leg?
Assertive – He felt very helpless. (J.B-2010)
Interrogative – Didn’t he feel very helpless?


Rule 4: Assertive sentence এ never থাকলে ever হয় এবং nothing থাকলে anything হয়। auxiliary/be verb থাকলে তা Subject এর আগে বসে+ বাকি অংশ বসে| কিন্তু auxiliary/be verb না থাকলে অর্থ্যাৎ মূল Verb যুক্ত হলে Subject and tense অনুযায়ী প্রথমে don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?  
Assertive – Anger is nothing but a vice. (Dj.B-2016)
Interrogative – Is anger anything but a vice?
Assertive – You never play football.
Interrogative – Do you ever play football?
Note – Assertive sentence এর subject এ যদি nothing থাকে তাহলে nothing এর জায়গায় what বসে।
Assertive – Nothing can ruin him.
Interrogative – what can ruin him?
Rule 5: Everybody/ everyone/all যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় Everybody/ everyone/all এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +? 
Assertive – Everybody respects a truthful person. (B.B-2013)
Interrogative – Who doesn’t respect a truthful person?
Assertive – Everybody wants to win.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t wish to win?
Assertive – Everybody/All loves flowers.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t love flower?
Rule 6: Nobody/none/no one interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Nobody/none/no one এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + বাকী অংশ + ?
Assertive: Nobody denies their contribution to their motherland. (CoB-2016)
Interrogative: Who denies their contribution to their motherland?
Assertive – Nobody could ever count my love for you.
Interrogative – Who could ever count my love for you?
Assertive – No one can beat him.
Interrogative – Who can beat him?

Exclamatory to assertive

Rule 1: Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – প্রথমে subject বসে + verb + a/an (প্রদত্ত বাক্যটিতে What থাকলে a/an বসে| কিন্তু How থাকলে a/an বসে না) + very/great + adjective/adverb + বাকী অংশ। 
Exclamatory – What a simple life he leads! (D.B-2010)
Assertive – He leads a very simple life.
Exclamatory – What a nice flower it is!
Assertive – It is a very nice flower.
Exclamatory – What a genius student he is!
Assertive – He is a very genius student.
Exclamatory – How rapidly the Bangladesh Cricket Team is progressing!
Assertive – The Bangladesh Cricket team is progressing very rapidly. (D.B-2014)
Exclamatory – How impossible it is to convince anybody with an implausible answer.
Assertive – It is quite impossible to convince anybody with an implausible answer. (Dn.B-2014)


Rule 2: Hurrah যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Hurrah এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of joy that + Hurrah এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Hurrah! We have won the game.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.
Exclamatory – hurrah! I got the first prize.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that I have got the first prize.
Rule 3: If দ্বারা exclamatory sentence শুরু হলে উক্ত sentence কে Assertive করার নিয়ম –
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I could fly!
Assertive – I wish I could fly
Rule 4: প্রথমে had যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Subject + wish + পুনরায় subject বসে + had + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – Had I the pairs of birds!
Assertive – I wish I had the pairs of birds.
Exclamatory – Had I been a king!
Assertive – I wish I had been a king.
Rule 6: প্রথমে Alas যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Alas এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of sorrow that + alas এর পরের অংশ। 
Exclamatory – Alas! We lost the game!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that we lost the game.
Exclamatory – Alas! He failed in the examination!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that he failed in the examination.
Rule 7: প্রথমে Fie যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Fie এর পরিবর্তে it is shameful that + fie এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Fie! He cannot tolerate the poor.
Assertive – It is shameful that he cannot tolerate the poor.
Exclamatory – Fie! He don’t respect seniors.
Assertive – It is shameful that he don’t respect seniors.
Rule 8: প্রথমে Would that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – প্রদত্ত subject + wish + Would that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Would that I could be a player!
Assertive – I wish I could be a player.
Exclamatory – Would that I could be a child again!
Assertive – I wish I could be a child again.
Rule 9: প্রথমে o that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Subject + wish + o that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – O that you were a cricketer!
Assertive – I wish you were a cricketer.
Exclamatory – O that i were a poet.
Assertive – I wish I were a poet.

Assertive to Exclamatory

Rule 1: Assertive কে Exclamatory করার নিয়ম: প্রথমে what (a/an) বা how বসে + adjective/Adjective বসে + subject + verb + evwK অংশ( যদি থাকে) + ! (Note of Exclamation)
Note – adjective এর পূর্বে a/an থাকলে what a/an বসে এবং a না থাকলে how বসে.
Assertive: Cricket is an exciting game. (RB-2016)
Exclamatory: What an exciting game cricket is!
Assertive – Nasir earnestly desire to see her once. (JeB-2016)
Exclamatory – How earnestly Nasir desires to see her once!
Assertive – The Bangladesh Cricket team is progressing very rapidly. (D.B-2014)
Exclamatory – How rapidly the Bangladesh Cricket Team is progressing!
Assertive – It is quite impossible to convince anybody with an implausible answer. (Dn.B-2014)
Exclamatory – How impossible it is to convince anybody with an implausible answer.
Assertive – Cricket is a very exciting game. (R.B-2013)
Exclamatory – What an exciting game  cricket is!
Assertive – Mills and factories pollute water awfully. (Ctg.B-2013)
Exclamatory – How awfully mills and factories pollute water!
Assertive – I was very glad to see the sea-beach. (C.B-2012)
Exclamatory – How glad I was to see the sea-beach!
Rule 2: Assertive sentence এ wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় শুরুতে if/had বসে। 
Assertive – I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Exclamatory – Had I the wings of bird!
Or, If I had the wings of a bird!
Assertive – I wish I were a king.
Exclamatory – If I were a king!
Rule 3: Assertive sentence এ wish/desire Exclamatory sentence করার সময় এর শুরুতে If, had, o that, oh that ইত্যাদি বসে।
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I desire I were young again.

Exclamatory – Oh that I were young again.

 

Practice

Money is what money (a) ——(do). It is the means of (b) ——(lead) worldly life. We (c) ——(lead) our life well by earning money. Shortage of money (d) ——(make) our life deplorable. We (e) ——(not, lead) our life properly in want of money. Parents, brothers, sisters, wives, friends (f) ——(neglect) one in want of money. One’s wife and children (g) ——(get separate) from one in want of money. It (h) ——(be) the symbol of unity. But to (i) ——(earn) money is not easy for all. Ability as well as capability (j) ——(require) to earn money. Money is also the symbol of fall and downfall.

No person can be happy without friends. So (a) everybody wants friends. (Negative) (b) The heart is formed for love and cannot be happy without the opportunity of giving and receiving love. (Complex) But (c) you cannot receive affection unless you give it also. (Simple) You cannot find others to love you unless you love them. (d) You cannot be happy without it. (Interrogative) (e) As love is divine, everybody wants love. (Compound).

(a) What a nice idea! (Make it assertive) (b) Charles Karoro lives in a small apartment. (Make it compound) (c) Nairobi is one of the most expensive cities. (Make it positive) (d) He has two school going children. (Make it complex) (e) His wife loves gardening. (Make it negative)

(a) Everybody longs for money. (Interrogative) (b) But people who have little money are very happy. (simple) (c) People want to be happy and they earn money. (Complex) (d) We are sure that it is a wrong idea. (Compound) More money brings more anxiety. (e) We should not be guided by money. (Passive).

(a) Traffic jam is the most serious problem in Dhaka City (Make it comparative). (b) It has become a common affair here (Make it negative). It occurs mostly during office hours. (c) Sometimes a traffic jam is so acute that it blocks about half a kilometre of a street (Make compound). (d) It kills our valuable time and works (Make it passive). (e) However, this problem can be solved by adopting some pragmatic steps (Make it complex).

(a) Sundrabans that is the unique creation of nuture is called the 52nd World Heritage Site (Simple). (b) It is called the mangrove forest (active). It is situated in the southern part of Bangladesh. (c) It is one of the biggest mangrove forests in the world (Positive). (d) Sundarban protects southern part of our country in time of natural disasters (Complex). (e) Many people go to Sundarbans to observe the natural beauties (Compound). In the forest, you not only find a natural and peaceful atmosphere there but you may be lucky enough to see the famous Royal Bengal Tigers or spotted deer.

(a) Water, a vital element of environment is polluted by various ways (Complex). It is called life. (b) The water which is pure is necessary for us (Simple). (c) People pollute water by throwing waste into it (Compound). (d) The farmers use water in time of cultivation largely (Passive). (e) It is one of the most important elements of all living beings (Positive).

Bangladesh is my adoring country. (a) It is an independent country (Make it a complex sentence). (b) We gained our freedom in 1971 at the cost of supreme sacrifice (Make it passive). (c) As soon as we gained independence, we did a glowing homage to the martyrs (Make it a negative sentence without changing the meaning). (d) Now we are trying our level best so that we can achieve our political and economic emancipation (Make it a simple sentence). (e) How sweet the taste of independence is! (Make it an assertive sentence).

Anger is nothing but a vice. (a) It begets only the worst. (negative) (b) Anger is one of the most inhuman vices. (positive) (c) So, we should control it for our own sake. (passive) (d) He who is taken by anger causes a lot of troubles. (simple) (e) Realizing it, everyone should try to be emotionally balanced. (complex).

(a) I went back to work, closing the door. (compound) (b) At first the sound of the boy’s dragging brush annoyed me. (passive) He began to chop. (c) The blows that he made were rythmic and steady. (simple) (d) The sound of his blows were more rythmic than a consistent rain. (positive) (e) Having forgotten the boy I went back to sleep. (compound)

A man may become great and good if he loves and respects his parents. (a) George Washington cut a tree in his father’s garden (Make it passive). (b) When his father saw it, he became very angry (Make it simple). (c) Though the boy trembled in fear, he did not tell a lie (Make it compound). (d) His father expressed happiness for his truthful son (Make it complex). Again, at the time of his leaving for service, his mother got upset. So, he decided not to go away breaking his mother’s heart. (e) He was one of the most devoted sons (Make it positive).

(a) Reazuddin Munsi, an owner of scanty property, was not solvent at all. (Complex) (b) Yet he tried to educate his children so that he may see them established in life. (Simple) (c) His children too were meritorious enough to pass all examinations well. (Compound) (d) Of all the students of their respective classes, they always secured the best results both in internal and external examinations. (Comparative Degree) (e) So, the people of their village always praised them in the highest possible language. (Passive Voice) All these were possible for the sacrifices of an insolvent and illiterate ploughman. (f) Indeed, his sacrifices for children cannot be measured. (Active)

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